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The evolution of technology and the numerous and varied educational institutions, each providing a number of courses or degrees, has led to variety of techniques in the field of distance education including open learning and one-learning. Open Learning refers generally to activities that either enhance learning opportunities within formal education systems or broaden learning opportunities beyond formal education systems. E-learning theory describes the cognitive science principles of effective multimedia learning using electronic educational technology. The objective of this journal is to bring together research contributions on the design, specification, and implementation of for current and future of Open Learning and E-learning.

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    Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria
    Volume 1, No. 1, September 2020 | 24 pages| http//dx.doi.org/10.46410/jelm.2020.1.1.05

    Authors

    Hussain Muhammad Isah, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria
    Henry Olawale Sawyerr, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria
    Morufu Olalekan Raimi, Niger Delta University, Nigeria
    Bala Getso Bashir, Kano State College of Health Sciences and Technology, Kano, Nigeria
    Suleiman Haladu, Kano State, Nigeria
    Oluwaseun Emmanuel Odipe, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State, Nigeria


    Abstract

    An astonishing 150 million tons of fertilizers and 6 million tons of pesticides are yearly and routinely applied to fields and crops to increase agricultural production. Today modern agriculture relies heavily on the use of pesticides. Hence, instilling confidence and enriching farmers begins with recognizing the need for pesticide use modification, whether through existing or new technologies, such as efficiency, cost reduction, or effective decision-making. As many types of rapid toxicity or explicit evidence and platforms provide useful information on the symptoms of human risk and pesticide self-poisoning accounts, which offer the promise of aiding decision-making in a variety of areas, including the regulatory management of chemicals, product, environmental assessment, and emergencies. The present study aimed to assess commonly used pesticide application and frequency of farmer’s self-reported symptoms in Kano State, Nigeria. A comprehensive questionnaire was established that focuses on sociodemographic characteristics, education, and experience on the adverse health effects associated with the use of the pesticide, description of job practices, and a list of used pesticides on the farms in the study area. Of the 400 copies of the administered questionnaires, 392 copies were retrieved and found useable, which represents 98% of the administered questionnaires. A total of 89.5% of the farmers make use of pesticides; of the 351 farmers that made use of pesticides, 31.3% use Apron plus, 12.0% use Atrazine, 33.6% use [Cypermethrin] while 9.7%, 8.5%, 4.8%, 31.3% and 12.0% of the respondents use Sevin, Thiodan, Fusilade, Primextra, and others respectively, of the farmers 46.2% had been using the pesticide for 1-5 years, 48.1% had used it for 10-15, the regularity of these symptoms reveals that the majority of the respondents experienced these symptoms regularly (56.1% for headache, 53.8% for stomach cramps, 56.5% for muscles weakness, 56.8% for vomiting, 58.3% for dizziness, 40.7% for shortness of breath, 45.5% for blurred vision and 66.7% for eye irritation. It is therefore imperative to focus on chemical pesticides and their toxicity, which should be assessed quickly and new methods should be developed to prioritize human and biological health. Also, structured interventions are required to lessen health risks exposure, as well as training, labeling improvements, and measures to decrease the cost of barriers in the implementation of safety behaviors and promotion of administrative control measures. Likewise, the use of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies in emerging countries such as Nigeria should be encouraged and made possible by a wide variety of public initiatives through translating local data into evidence-based solutions at a grassroots level. Thus, calling for action for local scale participatory citizen science to solve complex chemical pesticides issues at a local, regional, and national scale.


    Keywords

    Environmental media, health risk concerns, decision making, evidence-based solutions, regulatory management, biomonitoring, citizen science, emergency response


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    Citations

    APA:
    Isah, H. M., Sayerr, H. O., Raimi, M. O., Bashir, B. G., Haladu, S. & Odipe, O. M. (2020). Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning Management (JELM), HolyKnight, vol. 1, 31-54. doi.org/10.46410/jelm.2020.1.1.05.

    MLA:
    Isah, Hussain Muhammad, et al “Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria.” Journal of Education and Learning Management, HolyKnight, vol. 1, 2020, pp 31-54. JELM, https://holyknight.co.uk/journals/jelm/Vol1-1/5.html.

    IEEE:
    [1] H. M. Isah, H. O. Sayerr, M. O. Raimi, B. G. Bashir, S. haladu, and O. M. Odipe, “Assessment of Commonly Used Pesticides and Frequency of Self-Reported Symptoms on Farmers Health in Kura, Kano State, Nigeria.” Journal of Education and Learning Management (JELM), HolyKnight, vol. 1, pp. 31-54. September 2020.